The use of metronidazole has been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis in case reports.
Dr Nørgaard and colleagues aimed to examine this issue within a proper epidemiological design.
The research team included 3,083 cases of acute pancreatitis from Hospital Discharge Registries in 3 Danish counties and 30 830 matched population controls.
From prescription databases, the researchers extracted information on use of metronidazol with or without proton-pump inhibitors and/or amoxicillin, macrolides or tetracycline.
| Information was extracted on the use of metronidazol with or without proton-pump inhibitors and/or amoxicillin, macrolides or tetracycline|
|Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics|
The investigators reported on the adjusted odds ratios in the different groups within 30, 31180, or 181365 days before hospitalization.
The researchers observed that the adjusted odds ratio for subjects with acute pancreatitis who redeemed a prescription for metronidazole were 3.0, 1.8 and 1.1, respectively.
The research team found that among subjects with a concomitant prescription for proton-pump inhibitors and/or amoxicillin, macrolides or tetracycline the adjusted odds ratios were 8.3, 2.7 and 1.7, respectively.
The researchers concluded that metronidazole may increase the risk of acute pancreatitis.
Dr Nørgaard also stated that, “The risk seems mainly to increase when metronidazole is used in combination with other drugs used for Helicobacter pylori eradication.”