A team from the Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, USA, reviewed the cases of 3 patients with acute leukemia following liver transplantation.
The patients were identified out of 1365 who underwent liver transplantation at the authors' institution.
In Patient 1, AML-M4 developed 19 months after transplant for cryptogenic cirrhosis.
In Patient 2, B cell acute lymphoid leukemia was diagnosed 10 months after liver transplant for fulminant hepatitis.
Both patients had normal cytogenetics, and achieved complete remission with chemotherapy.
In Patient 3, acute monocytic leukemia-M3 with t(15;17) arose 18 months after transplant for hepatitis C cirrhosis.
|3 cases of leukemia occurred after 1365 liver transplantations.
| Transplantation |
This patient received treatment with retinoic acid and chemotherapy, but developed a disseminated intravascular coagulation and died before completing therapy.
The researchers found that no patient presented with chromosomal abnormalities commonly seen in secondary leukemia.
The latency period to diagnosis after transplant was 10-19 months.
Carlos A. Doti concluded on behalf of his colleagues, "Acute leukemia, although rare after liver transplantation, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hematological complications."