There is uncertainty regarding the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses in patients with celiac disease (CD) and people who avoid gluten without a diagnosis of CD.
Dr Haley Zylberberg and colleagues obtained data from 22,274 participants from the 2009–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to compare the prevalence of depression, insomnia, quality-of-life variables, and psychotropic medication use in CD participants and people who avoid glutens to controls.
The team used multivariable logistic regression to assess for independent associations between CD/people who avoid gluten status and the outcomes of these variables.
|The prevalence estimates of sleep difficulty in participants with CD were 38%|
|European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology|
The research team found that depression was present in 8% of controls compared with 4% of participants with CD, and 3% of people who avoid glutens.
After adjustment for age, sex, race, income, and access to healthcare, people who avoid glutens maintained lower odds of depression compared with controls.
The prevalence estimates of sleep difficulty in participants with CD or people who avoid glutens were 38% and 34%, respectively.
The team noted that those with diagnosed CD had increased odds of sleep difficulty, but this was no longer significant after multivariable adjustment.
Dr Zylberberg's team concludes, "Among a nationally representative US sample, participants with CD overall showed no increased odds of depression or sleep difficulty."
"People who avoid glutens showed lower odds of depression compared with controls."
"Future research should investigate the relationship between a diagnosis of CD and the development of psychiatric conditions."