Foodborne illness affects 15% of the US population each year, and is a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Dr Madhusudan Grover and colleagues from Minnesota, USA evaluated risk of, risk factors for, and outcomes of IBS after infectious enteritis.
The team performed a systematic review of electronic databases from 1994 through 2015 to identify cohort studies of the prevalence of IBS 3 months or more after infectious enteritis.
The researchers used random-effects meta-analysis to calculate the summary point prevalence of IBS after infectious enteritis, as well as relative risk, and host- and enteritis-related risk factors.
|Risk of IBS was 4-fold higher in patients who had infectious enteritis in the past 12 months |
The team identified 45 studies, comprizing 21,421 individuals with enteritis, followed for 3 months to 10 years for development of IBS.
The pooled prevalence of IBS at 12 months after infectious enteritis was 10%, and at more than 12 months after infectious enteritis was 15%.
The researchers found that risk of IBS was 4-fold higher in patients who had infectious enteritis in the past 12 months than in those who had not.
The team observed that the risk of IBS was 2-fold higher in individuals who had infectious enteritis more than 12 months ago than in individuals who had not.
Of patients with enteritis caused by protozoa or parasites, 42% developed IBS, and of patients with enteritis caused by bacterial infection, 14% developed IBS.
The team noted that risk of IBS was significantly increased in women, and individuals with antibiotic exposure, anxiety, depression, somatization, neuroticism, and clinical indicators of enteritis severity.
There was a considerable level of heterogeneity among studies.
Dr Grover's team comments, "In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found >10% of patients with infectious enteritis develop IBS later."
"Risk of IBS was 4-fold higher than in individuals who did not have infectious enteritis, although there was heterogeneity among studies analyzed."
"Women—particularly those with severe enteritis—are at increased risk for developing IBS, as are individuals with psychological distress and users of antibiotics during the enteritis."