Limited data are available on risk factors for gastric cancer in the United States.
Dr Elizabeth Dong and colleagues from California, USA characterized risk for gastric cancer based on race/ethnicity and additional established risk factors.
The team conducted a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2014 from an integrated health care system in Southern California to assess incidence of gastric cancer by race/ethnicity.
The researchers then conducted an age- and sex-matched case-cohort study to evaluate additional risk factors, including Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco use, family history, obesity, language, and socioeconomic status.
Subgroup analysis was performed for language and socioeconomic status by race/ethnicity.
|Racial/ethnic minorities to have a 40%–50% increase in risk of gastric cancer |
|Clinical Gastroenterology & Hepatology|
The researchers found that the incidence of gastric cancer in the reference population was 8 cases per 100,000 person-years.
The team observed that incidence values for Asians, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic black persons were higher at 13, 13, and 12 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively.
The researchers found race/ethnicity to be an independent risk factor for gastric cancer, compared with the non-Hispanic white population.
Other independent risk factors included infection with H. pylori, smoking history, and family history of gastric cancer.
The team noted that non-English language was a significant risk factor for gastric cancer in Asians.
The research team observed that higher annual median income was associated with reduced risk.
Dr Dong's team concludes, "In a population study in Southern California, we found racial/ethnic minorities to have a 40%–50% increase in risk of gastric cancer compared with the non-Hispanic white population."
"In addition to H. pylori infection, smoking, family history, and low socioeconomic status were also associated with increased risk."
"Further characterization of high-risk groups may identify populations appropriate for targeted screening."