Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) may increase the risk of fatty liver disease.
Dr Jennifer Price and colleagues from California, USA determined the prevalence of and risk factors for fatty liver by comparing HIV-infected men with HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS).
In 719 participants who consumed less than three alcoholic drinks daily, fatty liver was defined as a liver-to-spleen attenuation ratio <1 on noncontrast computed tomography (CT).
The team genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene, and in other genes previously associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Risk factors for fatty liver were determined using multivariable logistic regression.
The team reported that among 254 HIV-uninfected men and 465 HIV-infected men, 56% were White with median age 53 years and median body mass index 25.8 kg/m2.
|15% of the cohort had fatty liver|
The team noted that 92% of HIV-infected men were on ART, and 87% of the HIV-infected men were treated with a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for a median duration of 9 years.
Overall, 15% of the cohort had fatty liver, which was more common in the HIV-uninfected compared with the HIV-infected men.
The researchers found that HIV infection was associated with a lower prevalence of fatty liver, whereas a higher prevalence of fatty liver was seen in participants with PNPLA3 (rs738409) non-CC genotype, more abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ≥4.9.
Among HIV-infected men, PNPLA3 (rs738409) non-CC genotype was associated with a higher prevalence of fatty liver and cumulative dideoxynucleoside exposure.
Dr Price's team comments, "CT-defined fatty liver is common among men at risk for HIV infection, and is associated with greater visceral adiposity, HOMA-IR, and PNPLA3 (rs738409)."
"Although treated HIV infection was associated with a lower prevalence of fatty liver, prolonged exposure to dideoxynucleoside analogs is associated with higher prevalence."