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PPIs and risk for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection among inpatients

The most recent issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology examines the association between PPI use and risk of recurrent C.difficile infection among inpatients.

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Observational studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a risk factor for incident Clostridium difficile infection (CDI).

Data also suggest an association between PPIs and recurrent CDI, although large-scale studies focusing solely on hospitalized patients are lacking.

Dr Daniel Freedberg and colleagues therefore performed a retrospective cohort analysis of inpatients with incident CDI to assess receipt of PPIs as a risk factor for CDI recurrence in this population.

Using electronic medical records, the team identified hospitalized adult patients between 2009 and 2012 with incident CDI, defined as a first positive stool test for C. difficile toxin B and who received appropriate treatment.

Electronic records were parsed for clinical factors including receipt of PPIs, other acid suppression, non-CDI antibiotics, and comorbidities.

The team's primary exposure was in-hospital PPIs given concurrently with C. difficile treatment.

The cumulative incidence of CDI recurrence in the cohort was 23%
American Journal of Gastroenterology

Recurrence was defined as a second positive stool test 1590 days after the initial positive test.

The team found that the C. difficile recurrence rates in the PPI exposed and unexposed groups were compared with the log-rank test.

Multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling was performed to control for demographics, comorbidities, and other clinical factors.

The research team identified 894 inpatients with incident CDI.

The cumulative incidence of CDI recurrence in the cohort was 23%.

The researchers found that receipt of PPIs concurrent with CDI treatment was not associated with C. difficile recurrence.

Black race, increased age, and increased comorbidities were associated with CDI recurrence.

In light of a higher 90-day mortality seen among those who received PPIs, the team also analyzed the subset of patients who survived to 90 days of follow-up.

The team observed no association between PPIs and CDI recurrence.

The researchers found no association between recurrent CDI and increased duration or dose of PPIs.

Dr Freedberg's team concludes, "Among hospitalized adults with C. difficile, receipt of PPIs concurrent with C. difficile treatment was not associated with CDI recurrence."

"Black race, increased age, and increased comorbidities significantly predicted recurrence. Future studies should test interventions to prevent CDI recurrence among high-risk inpatients."

Am J Gastroenterol 2014: 108: 1794-1801
19 December 2013

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