Dr Michelle Anderson from Michigan USA examined the association between tobacco and alcohol dose and type and the age of onset of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Prospective data from the Pancreatic Cancer Collaborative Registry were used to examine the association between age of onset and variables of interest including gender, race, birth country, educational status, family history of pancreatic cancer, diabetes status, and tobacco and alcohol use.
Statistical analysis included logistic and linear regression, Cox proportional hazard regression, and time-to-event analysis.
The median age to diagnosis for pancreatic cancer was 66 years.
|Active smokers had a hazard ratio of 2.70 for earlier onset pancreatic cancer|
|American Journal of Gastroenterology|
The team found that males were more likely than females to be smokers and heavy alcohol and beer consumers.
The researchers identified that gender, alcohol and tobacco use, family history of pancreatic cancer, and body mass index are significantly associated with pancreatic cancer presentation age.
With the outcome of the study the doctors found that both alcohol and tobacco had dose-dependent effects.
In multivariate analysis, alcohol status and dose were independently associated with increased risk for earlier pancreatic cancer onset with greatest risk occurring in heavy drinkers.
The research team found that the smoking status had the highest risk for earlier onset pancreatic cancer with a hazard ratio of 2.70 for active smokers, and independent effects for dose.
The deleterious effects for alcohol and tobacco appear to resolve after 10 years of abstinence.
Dr Anderson's team comments, "Alcohol and tobacco use are associated with a dose-related increased risk for earlier age of onset of pancreatic cancer."
"Although beer drinkers develop pancreatic cancer at an earlier age than nondrinkers, alcohol type did not have a significant effect after controlling for alcohol dose."