People infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of some malignancies, but little is known about the effects of infection on risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Dr Christina Persson and colleagues from Maryland, USA evaluated the risks of different histologic and anatomic subtypes of carcinomas and non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the stomach and esophagus in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The research team analyzed data from the HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study, which links data collected from 1980 to 2007 for 16 US population-based HIV and AIDS and cancer registries.
|People with AIDS had greater risks of carcinomas of the gastric cardia|
The team compared risks of stomach and esophageal malignancies in people with AIDS with those of the general population using standardized incidence ratios.
The researchers found that people with AIDS had increased risks of carcinomas of the esophagus and stomach.
The researchers found that risk was increased for esophageal adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
The team noted that people with AIDS had greater risks of carcinomas of the gastric cardia, and noncardia than the general population.
Although most stomach and esophageal non-Hodgkin lymphomas that developed in people with AIDS were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, these individuals also had an increased risk of stomach mucosa–associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.
The team found that the incidence of carcinomas remained fairly constant over time, but rates of non-Hodgkin lymphomas decreased from 1980 to 2007.
Dr Persson's team commented, "People with AIDS are at increased risk for developing esophageal and stomach carcinomas and non-Hodgkin lymphomas."
"Although the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphomas decreased from 1980 to 2007 as treatments for HIV infection improved, HIV-infected individuals face continued risks of esophageal and stomach carcinomas."