Dr Alberto Hernando and colleagues from Canada investigated the extent of contamination with wheat, barley, rye or a mixture of these cereals in a large number of grains and commercial oats.
The team attempted to identify the type of cereal contaminant.
The research team used sandwich R5 ELISA, with either gliadins or hordeins as standards.
|Most of the 109 grains and oat products were contaminated with mixtures of wheat, barley and rye|
|European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology|
The team also used western blot, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques.
The researchers analyzed a total of 134 oats, comprising grains and commercial oat products collected from Europe, the United States and Canada.
The researchers found that 25 of the 134 pure, uncontaminated oat varieties had undetectable levels of gluten.
However, most of the 109 grains and commercial oat products were mainly contaminated with mixtures of wheat, barley and rye.
The team noted that barley was the predominant contaminant.
The team calculated the percentages of these cereals in the oat samples by specific wheat, barley and rye quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction systems.
The oat samples were grouped according to the avenin spectra determined by the mass spectrometric technique.
The researchers confirmed that contaminated oat foods, based on the same variety, could have different levels of wheat, barley and rye contamination.
Dr Hernando‘s team concluded, "This study has verified that contamination with wheat gliadins or barley hordeins in oat samples can be measured by the Sandwich R5 ELISA."
"Giadins or hordeins can be used as standards."
"However, it is important to use techniques such as western blot, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to confirm that most oats are contaminated with mixtures of wheat, barley and rye."