The risk for gallstones in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and the factors responsible for this complication have not been well established.
Dr Fabrizio Parente and colleagues from Italy studied the incidence of gallstones in a cohort of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients and investigated the related risk factors.
The investigative team undertook a case-controlled study of 634 IBD patients.
Of these, 429 had Crohn's disease, and 205 had ulcerative colitis.
The investigators also assessed 634 age-matched, sex-matched, and body mass index -matched controls free of gallstones at enrollment.
|The incidence rate of gallstones was 14 per 1000 persons/year in Crohn's disease|
The patients were followed for a mean of 7 years.
The incidence of gallstones was calculated by dividing the number of events per person-years of follow-up.
The investigators used multivariate analysis to discriminate among the impact of different variables on the risk of developing gallstones.
The incidence rates of gallstones were 14 per 1000 persons/year in Crohn's disease vs 8 per 1000 persons/year in matched controls.
The team found that the incidence rates were 8 per 1000 persons/year in ulcerative colitis patients vs 6 in matched-controls.
Ileo-colonic Crohn's disease location, disease duration over 15 years, and more than 3 clinical recurrences were related to gallstones in Crohn‘s patients.
The investigators noted that leal resection over 30 cm, and more than 3 hospitalisations were related to gallstones in Crohn‘s patients.
In addition, gallstones in Crohn's disease patients were related to long hospital stay, and multiple total parenteral nutrition treatments.
Dr Parente's team concluded, "Only Crohn's disease patients have a significantly higher risk of developing gallstones than well-matched hospital controls."
"Site of disease at diagnosis, lifetime surgery, extent of ileal resections, number of clinical recurrences, total parenteral nutrition, and the frequency and duration of hospitalizations are independently associated with gallstones."