Researchers from Birmingham, England, investigated the risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in women.
Esophageal cancer rates in women in the UK are more than 3 times higher than in most other European populations.
A population-based matched case-control study of histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in women was carried out in 4 regions in England and Scotland.
Interviews were conducted in hospital or at home, and topics included smoking, alcohol, tea and coffee consumption, medical and obstetric history, and diet.
Response rates were 62% for cases and 65% for first-chosen controls. There were 159 case-control pairs.
| Eating salads and light breakfasts decrease esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk.
| British Journal of Cancer |
Eating salads (odds ratio [OR] 0.42) and a light (as distinct from no) breakfast (OR 0.18) were both found to have protective effects.
On the other hand, quantity of tea was a risk factor. There was a significant positive trend with temperature at which hot drinks were consumed.
The team found that alcohol consumption was unrelated to risk. However, there was a significant trend with years of smoking.
A protective effect of aspirin consumption was confined to the English centers (OR 0.08).
In a comparison with a parallel study of adenocarcinoma, the researchers discovered that there was a common protective effect of a healthy diet, but otherwise distinct risk factors.