Gynaecomastia in alcoholic liver disease.
This male patient with alcoholic liver disease has gynaecomastia. Males with liver dysfunction have features of feminization with raised serum estrogen levels and reductions in testosterone levels, while estrogen receptors in tissue increase in number. Gynaecomastia is especially common in alcoholic liver disease, probably because alcohol increases the hepatic metabolism of testosterone. Spironolactone (an aldosterone antagonist) is also associated with gynaecomastia, especially in patients with chronic liver disease.
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