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Endoscopic ultrasound

Editor: Ian Penman


4. Submucosal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract

Raquel E. Davila & Douglas O. Faigel

Fig. 1 (A) Endoscopic view of a 'submucosal' lesion in the gastric fundus with normal-looking overlying mucosa. (B) Radial EUS demonstrates the lesion as homogeneous, hypoechoic, and arising from the fourth layer (arrowhead, muscularis propria). These features are consistent with a GIST.

Fig. 2 Malignant duodenal GIST. The lesion (G) arises from the fourth layer (muscularis propria) but has an invasive, irregular outer margin (arrowheads).

Fig. 3 This GIST has a heterogeneous appearance and cystic spaces (arrowhead), a feature which may predict malignant behaviour.

Fig. 4 An ovoid, subcentimeter hypoechoic lesion (L) arising from the fourth layer of the esophageal wall is characteristic of a leiomyoma.

Fig. 5 (A) Endoscopic view of a smooth submucosal bulge in the gastric antrum. (B) At EUS the lesion is hyperechoic and arises from the third wall layer (submucosa). These features are characteristic of a lipoma.

Fig. 6 Duodenal carcinoid tumor. (A) endoscopic appearance. (B) EUS reveals a hypoechoic, round lesion arising from the second and third wall layers. After EMR, histology confirmed a carcinoid tumor.

Fig. 7 Ectopic pancreas. (A) endoscopic view—note the central depression. (B) At EUS, the lesion (P) is heterogeneous and arises from the second and third layers.

Fig. 8 EUS in a patient with a 'submucosal' bulge in the gastric fundus reveals the abnormality to be the result of extrinsic compression by an accessory spleen or splenunculus (S).

Fig. 9 (A) Endoscopically there is a possible submucosal bulge on the anterior esophageal wall. (B) At EUS the cause is seen to be an enlarged, reactive-looking subcarinal lymph node (LN).

Fig. 10 At EUS gastric and perigastric varices are seen as anechoic, tubular, or serpiginous structures (V).

Copyright © Blackwell Publishing, 2005

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 28 November 2014

Advanced search
Introduction
History
Current applications
Therapeutic EUS
Teaching and training EUS
Synopsis
Introduction
Radial and linear endosonographic probes
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography
Catheter-based EUS probes (miniprobes)
  Miniprobe technique
  Miniprobes in cancer
  Other uses of miniprobes
  Miniprobe limitations
Needles and accessories for EUS
  Fine-needle aspiration
   Different types of needles
   FNA technique
   Accuracy and safety
  Core tissue biopsies
   Technique
   Accuracy and safety
Outstanding issues and future trends
References
Synopsis
EUS for cancer staging
Esophageal cancer staging with EUS
  Esophageal cancer TNM staging
  Technique for performing EUS staging of esophageal cancer
  EUS of stenotic esophageal tumors
  EUS evaluation of superficial tumors
  EUS evaluation of lymph nodes
  EUS-FNA of peri-esophageal lymph nodes
  Accuracy and limitations of EUS staging of esophageal cancer
  EUS re-staging of esophageal cancer after chemoradiation
  Impact of EUS staging on esophageal cancer management
Gastric cancer staging with EUS
  Gastric cancer TNM staging
  EUS staging of advanced gastric adenocarcinoma
  EUS staging of early gastric adenocarcinoma
  EUS staging of gastric MALT lymphoma
Rectal cancer staging with EUS
  Rectal cancer TNM staging
  Pathologic staging of rectal cancer
  Surgical management of rectal cancer
  Management algorithm for rectal cancer (Fig. 17)
  Technique for performing EUS rectal cancer staging
  EUS staging of rectal cancer
  Accuracy of EUS in staging rectal cancer
  EUS vs. CT and MRI for rectal cancer staging
  EUS/FNA for rectal cancer lymph node staging
  Stenotic rectal tumors
  Rectal EUS staging after radiation therapy
  Colon cancer staging with EUS
Anal cancer staging with EUS
Pancreatic cancer
  Staging of pancreatic cancer
  EUS staging of pancreatic cancer (Figs 12,13)
  Combination of EUS and CT/MRI for pancreatic cancer staging and determining resectability
  EUS-FNA for staging pancreatic cancer
  Recommendations for EUS staging of pancreatic cancer
Ampullary cancer
Extrahepatic bile duct cancer
Future trends and outstanding issues
References
Synopsis
Introduction
Endoscopic and EUS examination
GISTs
  Origin and development of GISTs
  Molecular biology of GIST: c-kit
  CD34 and other immunohistochemistry
  Clinical features
  Pathology
  Predicting malignant behavior: role of molecular markers
  Predicting malignant behavior: role of EUS
  Tissue sampling of GISTs
  EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration
  Therapy: surgery
  Therapy: imatinib
Leiomyomas
  Clinical features and diagnosis
  EUS features
Lipomas
  Clinical features and diagnosis
  EUS features
Granular cell tumors
  Clinical features
  Pathology
  Endoscopic and EUS features
  Treatment of granular cell tumors
Duplication cysts
  Clinical features
  EUS features
  Treatment of duplication cysts
Carcinoid tumors
  Clinical features and pathology
  Biochemistry
  Endoscopic and EUS features
  Appendiceal carcinoids
  Ileal carcinoids
  Rectal carcinoids
  Gastric and duodenal carcinoids
Ectopic pancreas ('pancreatic rest')
  Clinical features
  EUS features
Extrinsic compressions
Varices
Future trends and outstanding issues
References
Synopsis
Morbid anatomy
  Pancreas
  Portal vein
  Common bile duct
Endosonographic anatomy
Performing EUS of the pancreas and biliary tree
  Body and tail of pancreas
   Radial EUS
   Linear EUS
  Head and uncinate process of pancreas
   Radial EUS
   Linear
Benign biliary disease
  Choledocholithiasis
  Choledochal cysts
  Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)
Malignant biliary disease
  Ampullary carcinoma
  Cholangiocarcinoma
  Carcinoma of the gallbladder
Benign pancreatic disease
  Pancreatitis
   Acute pancreatitis
   Chronic pancreatitis
   Autoimmune pancreatitis
Cystic lesions of the pancreas
  Pseudocysts
  Cystadenomas
   Serous cystadenoma
   Mucinous cystadenoma
   Solid-cystic pseudopapillary tumor
   Intraductal mucin-producing tumor/neoplasm (IPMT/N)
   Mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma
Solid tumors of the pancreas
  Adenocarcinoma
   Screening for adenocarcinoma
  Neuroendocrine tumors
  Metastases
Training in pancreatico-biliary EUS
Outstanding issues and future trends
References
Synopsis
Non-invasive imaging modalities
  Chest CT
  Positron emission tomography
Invasive staging
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration
  Accuracy for diagnosing malignancy
  EUS and identification of metastatic disease
  EUS technique
  Limitations of EUS-FNA
Combined minimally invasive staging with endoscopic ultrasound and endobronchial ultrasound
Outstanding issues and future trends
  EUS-FNA and molecular markers in lung cancer
References

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